Flower samples are prepared and submitted POST THRESH, which means the material we test is dried and mechanically threshed, not flower that has been trimmed and gingerly handled. We submit at least ten samples of post-threshed flower each season and select one that is most representative of the average content. Average content post-thresh is a critical factor for large-scale production.
Environment indeed plays a role in many plant traits. With some traits, it plays a more significant role, and some a more minor role. Scientists call this “G by E” or genetics by environment. University research shows cannabinoid pathways are primarily controlled by genetics – over 80%, and the environment influences the remaining 20%. This is excellent news! Stable cannabinoid profiles across regions are absolutely attainable in well-bred varieties, as evidenced by many EU and Canadian varieties. The variation seen in the current market is likely due to poorly bred genetics. Like any plant species, the best seed is well-bred to adapt to your region and climate. Though major traits will remain stable, variety performance will vary slightly within a region. Importantly, cannabinoid content should not have significant variances.
No, CBD (cannabidiol) is a compound defined by its chemical characteristics distinguishing it from all other compounds in the physical universe. Any suggestion that CBD derived from hemp is different from that of marijuana is false. This would be akin to suggesting that calcium derived from a cow's milk is different from that of a goat. It is less contentious since hemp and marijuana are slight variants of the same species. The final CBD extract from a hemp cultivar may indeed differ from that of a marijuana strain for features such as terpene and cannabinoid profile. However, these characteristics will also distinguish different strains of marijuana since they have been selected for other attributes (e.g., %THC). There is no reason that a hemp variety could not create a CBD extract identical to that of marijuana, differentiated only by its low THC content. The quality of marijuana or hemp may vary, but the essential compound of CBD remains.
Identifying which cannabinoids affect which neuropathways takes a tremendous team of professionals from multiple disciplines in science. The ability to use marker-assisted breeding expedites this research and pinpoints the pathways desired for selection with certainty. This will make medicinal solutions more stable and predictable for product makers and consumers. New West Genetics has developed the knowledge to move Cannabis sativa’s potential into a data-based reality.
In 1988, Devane et al. reported the existence of cannabinoid-binding sites in the human brain. This CB1 receptor was cloned in 1990 and identified as part of the family of G protein-coupled receptors. A second cannabinoid receptor, CB2, was discovered in 1993 (Munro et al. 1993). We now know these two cannabinoid receptors exist in all chordates and evolved hundreds of millions of years ago (Pertwee et al. 2010). The presence of these receptors implies that humans (and other chordates) produce their own compounds that bind to these receptors. Two such endogenous or endocannabinoids have been discovered and characterized. There is currently an ongoing effort to understand which cannabinoids affect which neuropathways; this involves a tremendous team of professionals from multiple disciplines in science.
Cannabinoids are a subset of terpenophenolics unique to the species C. sativa. There are 80+ known cannabinoids in C. Sativa (Flores-Sanchez and Verpoorte 2008), with the most abundant being Δ9 THC (Δ9 Tetrahydrocannabinol), CBD (Cannabidiol) and CBN (Cannabinol). Several genes controlling these compounds' biosynthesis from a CBG (Cannabigerol) precursor have been identified (Taura et al. 1996). The amount and type of cannabinoids produced are influenced by both genetic variation among C. sativa plants and environmental conditions (Toth et al. 2021) and (Woods et al. 2021). Cannabinoids are at the highest concentration in the plant's glandular trichomes; therefore, genes controlling trichome development will also influence the amount of cannabinoids a given plant produces.